Ultrawideband millimeter-wave radar devices are promising as high precision sensors to monitor environments where vision is hindered due to clouds and fog for applications including automobile collision avoidance systems. Importantly, during the identification of objects under such circumstances, raw data from the sensors must be rapidly and accurately processed into three dimensional images by so-called 'conversion algorithms'.
Isaac Newton's discovery in the mid-1600s that white light consists of a 'spectrum' of rainbow colors, and then in the early 1800s Joseph von Fraunhofer's observation of lines in the solar spectrum laid the foundations for modern day spectroscopy—the workhorse of astronomers analyzing the chemical compositions of plasmas that form the basis of stars and galaxies.
Polycrystalline ceramic materials offer advantages including robustness over conventional glass as gain media for solid state lasers: devices that find many applications such as laser processing and medical surgery.
Optical sensors operating in the near infrared (NIR) are important for applications in imaging, photodetectors, and biological sensors. Notably, recent reports on the synthesis of high quality, large areas of graphene has motivated researchers to search for other 2D materials with properties suitable for NIR devices.
Controlling and manipulating the interaction of light with nanostructures offers the promise of new and innovative technological applications ranging from nanolasers and sensors to quantum computing. However, in spite of tremendous advances in nanotechnology that has enabled the fabrication of one and two dimensional structures (such as photonic crystal cavities), efficiently integrating nanocrystal cavities with modern optical fibers in communications networks is proving to be difficult.