Aurora—northern lights/southern lights—light emission appears at high altitudes in the range 100-300 km the polar atmosphere. Auroras are caused by energetic particles precipitating from space near the Earth. It is thought that such auroral particle precipitation can induce many kinds of effects to the Earth's atmosphere.
Recently, there have been remarkable advances in artificial intelligence (AI). It is said that AI is superior to human intelligence in supervised learning where vast amounts of labeled data is used to perform specific tasks. However, it is considered that it is difficult to realize human-like intelligence using only supervised learning because all supervised labels cannot be obtained for all the sensory information required by robots.
It is known that an electron-hole injected into DNA moves through double helical DNA and induces oxidative damage at guanine sites. To-date, this process has only been investigated in aqueous dilute solutions.