Prostheses are used to replace body parts damaged through trauma or congenital deficiencies. A wide range of prosthetic limbs exist including myoelectric prostheses that operate by so-called surface electromyography (sEMG), where pulses of electrical voltage from muscles are relayed to sensors when users want to initiate a movement. However, a major problem limit the application of such prosthetic devices is the instability of the electrical signals generated.
Digital to analog convertors (DACs) are devices that convert digital, typically binary signals to outputs in the form of voltage. The voltage generated can then be used to produce light, as in video and television or sound, as in MP3 players. Single-flux-quantum (SFQ)-based DACs fabricated using superconducting Josephson junctions generate voltages of quantum accuracy, which would be applied for metrological applications, i.e., realization of AC voltage standards.
A Bayesian network is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) or a probabilistic graphical model used by statisticians. Vertices of this model represent different variables. Any connections between variables indicate a conditional dependency and a lack of connections implies a lack of it.
High performance motion detection technology is critical as the 'eyes' of advanced robotic systems for applications including factory management and autonomous machines in home environments. Traditional robot vision devices such as CCD cameras integrated with microelectronic circuits rely on sophisticated algorithms for high speed imaging and processing for robotic navigation. However, these systems are expensive to implement and require specialists for maintenance when equipment malfunctions.